A rudimentary blog and website by a Finnish person who lived abroad and came back to Finland as an internation student.
A University of Applied science can be compared to a vocational school or trade school, in that it focuses on teaching students practical and professional skills. This can mean anything from becoming a basic coder to becoming a nurse in about four years time and gaining a bachelor's degree. A university is generally a longer and much more prestigious program and can grant you a Master's degree as well as an education in fields that Universities of Applied Sciences cannot offer due to their highly technical or theoretical nature.
It's generally not. Universities are state owned, meaning the government operates and funds them. This means that you can generally expect a similar level of education from any university, and there should be little issues with getting a job with any Finnish university diploma. In fact, a lot of people go to university in their specific area, instead of seeking for the most prestigious university in the country. There is no need to fear that your degree is "worthless" regardless of where you go, unlike in places like the United States where rankings can genuinly be a concern.
Absolutely. There are plenty of English programs in Finland. Do be aware though, many jobs in Finland require knowledge of the Finnish language, so do plan on learning it while you are studying.
If you are an EU citizen, not at all! In fact, tuition is free, although you still have to pay for things like food and housing (Finnish citizens get assitance here as well). If you are not an EU citizen, expect to pay anywhere between 9,500 Euros to 13,000 Euros for tuition per year, which is very steep compared to many other Universities around the world. It may be expensive, but do know that you are receiving a quality education.
There are exceptions per University so do check each one's website for application instructions, but generally applications can be done through the Studyinfo website, which is similar to sites like CommonApp or Coalition Application, but specifically for Finnish Schools.